I continue my publications on analytics:

This is the final block of articles on data analytics. The last task was to build a system that periodically checks key metrics every 15 minutes, such as active users in the feed / messenger, views, likes, CTR, the number of messages sent. It was necessary to choose the most suitable method for detecting anomalies. If an abnormal value is detected, an alert message with the following information should be sent to the chat: the metric, its value, the deviation value.

To identify anomalies, we will compare the averages for three periods of 15 minutes a day ago and a week ago. For example, 12:45, 12:30 and 12:15 a day ago and 12:45, 12:30 and 12:15 a week ago.

As always, let’s start by connecting the necessary libraries:

import pandas as pd
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import seaborn as sns
import telegram
import pandahouse
from datetime import date
import io
import sys
import os


The first step is to write a function that will track the metrics that we will monitor:

def get_alert_info():
    metrics_list = {
        'users_feed': {
            'alias': 'users_feed',
            'formula': 'uniqExact(user_id)',
            'metric_name': 'Users Feed',
            'table_name': 'simulator.feed_actions'
        'likes': {
            'alias': 'likes',
            'formula': "countIf(user_id, action='like')",
            'metric_name': 'Likes',
            'table_name': 'simulator.feed_actions'
        'views': {
            'alias': 'views',
            'formula': "countIf(user_id, action='view')",
            'metric_name': 'Views',
            'table_name': 'simulator.feed_actions'
        'ctr': {
            'alias': 'ctr',
            'formula': "countIf(user_id, action='like') / countIf(user_id, action='view')",
            'metric_name': 'CTR',
            'table_name': 'simulator.feed_actions'
        'lpu': {
            'alias': 'lpu',
            'formula': "countIf(user_id, action='like') / uniqExact(user_id)",
            'metric_name': 'Likes per user',
            'table_name': 'simulator.feed_actions'
        'vpu': {
            'alias': 'vpu',
            'formula': "countIf(user_id, action='view') / uniqExact(user_id)",
            'metric_name': 'Views per user',
            'table_name': 'simulator.feed_actions'
        'users_msg': {
            'alias': 'users_msg',
            'formula': 'uniqExact(user_id)',
            'metric_name': 'Users Messenger',
            'table_name': 'simulator.message_actions'
        'messages': {
            'alias': 'messages',
            'formula': 'count(user_id)',
            'metric_name': 'Messages',
            'table_name': 'simulator.message_actions'
        'mpu': {
            'alias': 'mpu',
            'formula': 'count(user_id) / uniqExact(user_id)',
            'metric_name': 'Messages per user',
            'table_name': 'simulator.message_actions'
    group_by_slices_list = {
        'os': {
            'alias': 'os',
            'group_levels': ['iOS', 'Android'],
            'formula': 'os',
    where_expression_template = ''' 
         toDate(time) in (today(), today() - 1, today() - 7) and formatDateTime(time, '%R') >= '01:00' '''

    responsible_users = {
        "metrics" : {"users_msg": "@zmey5656"},
        "groups" : {"os": "@zmey5656"}
    alert_plots = {
        'total': {
            'users_feed': 'http://superset.lab.karpov.courses/r/27',
            'likes': 'http://superset.lab.karpov.courses/r/30',
            'views': 'http://superset.lab.karpov.courses/r/33',
            'ctr': 'http://superset.lab.karpov.courses/r/36',
            'vpu': 'http://superset.lab.karpov.courses/r/39',
            'lpu': 'http://superset.lab.karpov.courses/r/42',
            'users_msg': 'http://superset.lab.karpov.courses/r/45',
            'messages': 'http://superset.lab.karpov.courses/r/50',
            'mpu': 'http://superset.lab.karpov.courses/r/55'
        'os': {
            'users_feed': 'http://superset.lab.karpov.courses/r/28',
            'likes': 'http://superset.lab.karpov.courses/r/32',
            'views': 'http://superset.lab.karpov.courses/r/35',
            'ctr': 'http://superset.lab.karpov.courses/r/38',
            'vpu': 'http://superset.lab.karpov.courses/r/41',
            'lpu': 'http://superset.lab.karpov.courses/r/44',
            'users_msg': 'http://superset.lab.karpov.courses/r/46',
            'messages': 'http://superset.lab.karpov.courses/r/52',
            'mpu': 'http://superset.lab.karpov.courses/r/54'
    return metrics_list, group_by_slices_list, where_expression_template, alert_plots, responsible_users

As can be seen from the code, our values will be sent both by common values and by slices — group_by_slices_list. We also create a where_expression_template — a time condition (yesterday and a week ago). Also, for the absence of false alerts at midnight, we disabled them. In addition, we are adding users responsible for these metrics. Well, at the end of this function, we will add links to previously prepared dashboards.

Next, we need to write functions that will collect the request as a constructor: SELECT, FROM, WHERE and GROUP BY.

def get_select_vars(mertics, metrics_list, group_by_slices_list, slice, all_data=False):
    date_select = "toDate(time) as date, "

    time_select = '''toStartOfFifteenMinutes(time) as time, 
                     formatDateTime(toStartOfFifteenMinutes(time), '%R') as time_,'''

    select_expression = []
    for metric in mertics:
        formula = metrics_list[metric]['formula']
        alias = metrics_list[metric]['alias']
        expression = '{formula} AS {alias}'.format(formula=formula, alias=alias)

    if slice != 'total':
        formula = group_by_slices_list[slice]['formula']
        alias = group_by_slices_list[slice]['alias']
        expression = '{formula} AS {alias}'.format(formula=formula, alias=alias)

    select_expression = ','.join(select_expression)

    if not all_data:
        select_expression = date_select + select_expression
        select_expression = date_select + time_select + select_expression
    return select_expression
  1. FROM
def get_from_table_name(mertics, metrics_list):
    table_name_list = []
    for metric in mertics:
        table_name = metrics_list[metric]['table_name']

    table_name_list = list(set(table_name_list))[0]
    table_name = str(table_name_list)
    return table_name
  1. WHERE
def get_where_expression(where_expression_template, group_by_slices_list, time, slice, all_data=False):
    where_expression = ''' {where_expression_template} and {alias} in ({group_levels}) '''

    day_0_min_time = time
    day_0_max_time = time + pd.Timedelta(minutes=15)
    day_1_min_time = time - pd.Timedelta(minutes=15) - pd.Timedelta(days=1)
    day_1_max_time = time + pd.Timedelta(minutes=30) - pd.Timedelta(days=1)
    day_7_min_time = time - pd.Timedelta(minutes=15) - pd.Timedelta(days=7)
    day_7_max_time = time + pd.Timedelta(minutes=30) - pd.Timedelta(days=7)

    time_expression = ''' and ((time >= '{day_0_min_time}' and time  < '{day_0_max_time}') 
                            or (time >= '{day_1_min_time}' and time < '{day_1_max_time}')
                            or (time >= '{day_7_min_time}' and time < '{day_7_max_time}'))'''.format(day_0_min_time=day_0_min_time,
    if not all_data:
        where_expression_template = where_expression_template + time_expression
        where_expression_template = where_expression_template

    if slice == 'total':
        where_expression = where_expression_template
        group_levels = group_by_slices_list[slice]['group_levels']
        alias = group_by_slices_list[slice]['alias']
        group_levels = "'" + "', '".join(group_levels) + "'"

        where_expression = where_expression.format(where_expression_template=where_expression_template,
    return where_expression
def get_group_by_expression(slice, group_by_slices_list, all_data=False):
    if not all_data:
        group_by_expression = ' date'
        group_by_expression = ' date, toStartOfFifteenMinutes(time) as time, time_'
    if slice != 'total':
        alias = group_by_slices_list[slice]['alias']
        group_by_expression = group_by_expression + ',' + alias
    return group_by_expression

Now you need to write a function that will send an alert:

def send_alert(plot_df, group, metric_name, metric_alias, slice_name, alert_plot, responsible_users, chat):

    bot = telegram.Bot(token=os.environ.get('REPORT_BOT_TOKEN'))

    dahsboard_link = 'https://superset.lab.karpov.courses/superset/dashboard/52/'

    day_0 = date.today().strftime("%Y-%m-%d")
    day_1 = (date.today() - pd.DateOffset(days=1)).strftime("%Y-%m-%d")
    day_7 = (date.today() - pd.DateOffset(days=7)).strftime("%Y-%m-%d")

    sns.set(rc={'figure.figsize': (16, 10)})

    ax = sns.lineplot(data=plot_df[plot_df['date'].isin([day_0, day_1, day_7])].sort_values(['date', 'time_']),
                      x='time_', y=metric_alias,
                      hue_order=[day_7, day_1, day_0],
                      style_order=[day_0, day_1, day_7],
                      sizes=[4, 3, 3],
                      size_order=[day_0, day_1, day_7])
    ax.legend([day_7, day_1, day_0])

    for ind, label in enumerate(ax.get_xticklabels()):
        if ind % 15 == 0:
    ax.set_title('{}\n{}'.format(group, metric_name))

    ax.set(ylim=(0, None))

    plot_object = io.BytesIO()
    plot_object.name = '{}.png'.format(metric_name)

    if slice_name == 'total':
        text = '''The problem with the metric {} is a strong deviation from yesterday/a week ago!\alert schedule {}\Dashboard {}'''.format(metric_name, alert_plot, dahsboard_link)
        text = '''The problem with the metric {} is a strong deviation from yesterday/a week ago\in the slice {} - {}\alert schedule {}\dashboard {}'''.format(metric_name, slice_name, group, alert_plot, dahsboard_link)

    responsible_users_metric = responsible_users['metrics'].get(metric_alias)
    if responsible_users_metric:
        text = text + '''\n\n{} please see if everything is ok?'''.format(responsible_users_metric)

    responsible_users_group = responsible_users['groups'].get(slice_name)
    if responsible_users_group:
        text = text + '''\n\n{} please see if everything is ok?'''.format(responsible_users_group)

    bot.sendMessage(chat_id=chat, text=text)
    bot.sendPhoto(chat_id=chat, photo=plot_object)

We also need a function that connects to the database and collects all the data:

def get_alert(alert_data, time, chat):
    chat_id = chat

    metrics_list, group_by_slices_list, where_expression_template, alert_plots, responsible_users = get_alert_info()

    mertics = alert_data['mertics']
    slice = alert_data['slice']

    query = '''SELECT {select_vars} 
               FROM {from_table_name} 
               WHERE {where_expression} 
               GROUP BY {group_by_expression}'''
    select_vars = get_select_vars(mertics, metrics_list, group_by_slices_list, slice)
    from_table_name = get_from_table_name(mertics, metrics_list)
    where_expression = get_where_expression(where_expression_template, group_by_slices_list, time, slice)
    group_by_expression = get_group_by_expression(slice, group_by_slices_list)

    alert_query = query.format(select_vars=select_vars,

    all_data = Getch(alert_query).df

    data_to_alerts = {}

    if slice != 'total':
        group_levels = group_by_slices_list[slice]['group_levels']
        alias = group_by_slices_list[slice]['alias']

        for group_level in group_levels:
            alert_df = all_data[all_data[alias] == group_level].copy()
            data_to_alerts[group_level] = {'df': alert_df, 'slice': slice, 'group_level': group_level}

        data_to_alerts['total'] = {'df': all_data, 'slice': 'total', 'group_level': 'total'}

    for group in data_to_alerts:
        alert_df = data_to_alerts[group]['df']
        slice_name = data_to_alerts[group]['slice']

        for metric in mertics:
            metric_alias = metrics_list[metric]['alias']
            metric_name = metrics_list[metric]['metric_name']
            alert_data = get_metric_alert(alert_df, metric, metric_alias, slice, group, day_threshhold=0.5)

            alert_data['metric'] = metric
            alert_data['metric_name'] = metric_name
            alert_data['slice'] = slice
            alert_data['group'] = group
            alert_data['group_level'] = group
            alert_data['time'] = time

            alerts_log_df = pd.DataFrame(alert_data, index=[0]).fillna(0)
            alerts_log_df = alerts_log_df[['time', 'day_0_value', 'day_1_value', 'day_7_value',
                                           'day_1_diff', 'day_7_diff', 'slice', 'group_level',
                                           'metric', 'metric_name', 'is_alert']]

            Insertch(alerts_log_df, 'alerts_log').insert

            if not alert_data['is_alert']:

            select_vars = get_select_vars(mertics, metrics_list, group_by_slices_list, slice, True)
            from_table_name = get_from_table_name(mertics, metrics_list)
            where_expression = get_where_expression(where_expression_template, group_by_slices_list, time, slice, True)
            group_by_expression = get_group_by_expression(slice, group_by_slices_list, True)

            plot_df_query = query.format(select_vars=select_vars,

            plot_df = Getch(plot_df_query).df

            if slice != 'total':
                plot_df = plot_df.query("{slice} == '{group}'".format(group=group, slice=slice))

            plot_df['time'] = pd.to_datetime(plot_df['time'])
            plot_df = plot_df[plot_df['time'] <= time]
            alert_plot = alert_plots[slice][metric]

            send_alert(plot_df, group, metric_name, metric_alias, slice_name, alert_plot, responsible_users, chat=chat_id)

Let’s divide the previous function and separately we will write a function for intervals:

def get_metric_alert(alert_df, metric, metric_alias, slice, group, day_threshhold=0.3):
    alert_data = {}
    is_alert = 0

    day_0 = date.today().strftime("%Y-%m-%d")
    day_1 = (date.today() - pd.DateOffset(days=1)).strftime("%Y-%m-%d")
    day_7 = (date.today() - pd.DateOffset(days=7)).strftime("%Y-%m-%d")
    day_0_value = alert_df[alert_df['date'] == day_0][metric].iloc[0]
    day_1_value = alert_df[alert_df['date'] == day_1][metric].iloc[0]
    day_7_value = alert_df[alert_df['date'] == day_7][metric].iloc[0]

    if metric in ('users_feed', 'users_msg', 'likes', 'views', 'messages'):
        day_1_value = day_1_value/3
        day_7_value = day_7_value/3

    if day_0_value <= day_7_value:
        day_7_diff = abs(day_0_value / day_7_value - 1)
        day_7_diff = abs(day_7_value / day_0_value - 1)

    if day_0_value <= day_1_value:
        day_1_diff = abs(day_0_value / day_1_value - 1)
        day_1_diff = abs(day_1_value / day_0_value - 1)

    alert_data['day_0_value'] = day_0_value
    alert_data['day_1_value'] = day_1_value
    alert_data['day_7_value'] = day_7_value
    alert_data['day_1_diff'] = day_1_diff
    alert_data['day_7_diff'] = day_7_diff
    alert_data['is_alert'] = is_alert

    q = '''SELECT max(time) as last_time FROM simulator.alerts_log 
           WHERE is_alert = 1 and slice = '{}' and metric = '{}' and group_level = '{}' '''.format(slice,
    last_time = Getch(q).df
    last_time = last_time['last_time'].iloc[0]

    if last_time != '1970-01-01 03:00:00' and pd.Timedelta(pd.Timestamp('now') - pd.to_datetime(last_time)).seconds / 3600.0 < 3:
        return alert_data

    if (day_1_value <= day_0_value <= day_7_value) or (day_7_value <= day_0_value <= day_1_value):
        return alert_data
    if day_7_diff >= day_threshhold and day_1_diff >= day_threshhold:
        is_alert = 1
        alert_data['is_alert'] = is_alert
        return alert_data
        return alert_data

In conclusion, we need a function to which a list of metrics that we will monitor will be passed.

def global_monitoring(chat=None):
    chat_id = chat or 0000000000
    alerts = [
        {"mertics": ["users_feed", "likes", "views", "ctr"], "slice": "total"},
        {"mertics": ["users_feed", "likes", "views", "ctr"], "slice": "os"},
        {"mertics": ["users_msg", "messages", "mpu"], "slice": "total"},

    time = Getch('''SELECT toStartOfFifteenMinutes(max(time))  - interval 15 minute AS mas_time
              FROM simulator.feed_actions WHERE toDate(time) >= today() - 1''').df
    time = time['mas_time'].iloc[0]

    for alert_data in alerts:
        get_alert(alert_data, time, chat=chat_id)


The necessary Python code is finished. It remains to place it on gitlab and automate it. How to do this has been described in previous publications. This concludes my training publications on data analytics. Thank you all for your attention. The publications were made on the basis of practical work on Karpov’s courses: where I studied in order to upgrade my knowledge.